GC, R. K., Hall, R. P., & Hammett, A. L. (2021). Thinking beyond domestic water supply: Approaches to advance multiple-use water systems (MUS) in the rural hills of Nepal. Water International, 47(1), 92–113. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060.2021.1966976
Keywords: Multiple-use water systems (MUS), international/nongovernmental organizations, policy, scaling-up, federal governance, Nepal.
Abstract: The development of multiple-use water systems (MUS) in Nepal has mostly relied on international/non-governmental organizations. Despite the growing interest in MUS within the country, the approach has not yet received space in government policy and programmes, limiting its wider implementation. We seek to understand both the challenges to, and strategies for, scaling-up MUS, especially with regard to how MUS could be incorporated into Nepali institutional and policy processes arising from the adoption of a three-tier (federal, state and local) federal governance system. Our recommendations are informed by a study of MUS in the middle hills of Nepal.
Holm, R. H., Hall, R. P., Muthukrishnan, S., Munthali, T., & Sinda, M. (2021). Promoting multiple-use water services by leveraging existing rural water supply and smallholder farmer groups, Malawi. International Journal of Water Resources Development, 37(2), 321–338. https://doi.org/10.1080/07900627.2020.1765745
Keywords: Karonga, Malawi, multiple-use water service, rural water supply, smallholder, sub-Saharan Africa.
Abstract: Multiple-use water services (MUS) can enhance the benefits communities receive from the productive use of water. This article uses household surveys, water samples, focus groups and key informant interviews to examine the potential of MUS in northern Malawi. Specific attention is given to the role of existing rural water supply options and knowledge held by an established smallholder rice farmer group. The study finds that expanding MUS requires: (1) forming MUS coalitions between communities, NGOs and business associations; (2) identifying appropriate MUS practices and markets; (3) undertaking community and water availability assessments; and (4) designing services aligned with these assessments.
GC, R. K., Ranganathan, S., Hammett, A. L., & Hall, R. P. (2020). What factors determine the technical performance of community-managed rural water systems in the middle hills of Nepal? Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 11(2), 222–230. https://doi.org/10.2166/washdev.2020.189
Keywords: Duration of water system breakdown, gravity-fed water system, hierarchical regression model, Nepal, productive income, sustainable.
Abstract: Gravity-fed water systems are widely used in the rural hills of Nepal. This study identifies the systematic factors that contribute to rural households not obtaining water due to system breakdowns. The study makes use of data from a 2017 to 2018 study of 202 households served by 10 community-based water systems from three localities within the western middle hills of Nepal. A hierarchical regression model is used to capture both household- and system-level variables. The analysis identifies three household-level and three system-level predictors of the duration of water system breakdowns. The significant household-level predictors include (1) a sense of ownership toward the water system, (2) user involvement in decision making during the planning and implementation of the water system, and (3) income earned from water-based productive activities. The significant system-level predictors include (1) distance from the village to the water source, (2) the performance of the water user committee, and (3) the water system operator’s level of activity. In addition, the interactions between household- and system-level variables are captured. The empirical relationship between household productive income and the duration of breakdowns is a novel finding. These findings will be valuable to the Nepalese government and other actors working to implement sustainable water systems.
GC, R. K. & Hall, R. P. (2020). The Commercialization of Smallholder Farming—A Case Study from the Rural Western Middle Hills of Nepal. Agriculture, 10(5), 143. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10050143
Keywords: Technical approaches, commercialization, smallholder farming, motivation, remittances, crop insurance, subsidies.
Abstract: A vast majority of farmers in the rural middle hills of Nepal are smallholders who often use family labor and follow traditional agricultural and water management practices. This study examines a range of perspectives (from rural farmers to development experts) on the limited commercialization of rural agriculture in this region of Nepal and the potential approaches to promoting agricultural growth and commercialization among small landholders. An analysis of household surveys, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions in three wards of Kaski, Syangja, and Palpa districts of Nepal revealed that nearly one-third of farmers left their agricultural lands barren or only partly cultivated, and more than one-third were not motivated to engage in agricultural activities. This lack of motivation was found to be connected with limited or no access to irrigation water, poor production systems, a lack of access to markets, a low return on investment in agriculture, the low social status of farm-work, the incidence of crop infestations, and fear of production risks due to extreme climatic factors (such as low/high rainfall, droughts, etc.). Remittances related to outmigration were also found to be important factors limiting a farmer’s involvement in agriculture, which also creates labor shortages. This research confirms that, for agricultural production to be profitable and commercial, households need to receive qualified technical support to introduce new technologies, engage in markets, access input suppliers and service providers, and adopt high-value production crops and related techniques. Households that receive an income from government jobs, private sources, and remittances reported agriculture being a laborious and difficult task. Addressing these mediating factors along with the provision of effective crop insurance and subsides for the lower-income segments of the population, has the potential to (re)engage rural households in farming activities. Such an approach could provide a way to realize the government’s plans to commercialize smallholder farming.
Domínguez, I., Oviedo-Ocaña, E. R., Hurtado, K., Barón, A. B., & Hall, R. P. (2019). Assessing Sustainability in Rural Water Supply Systems in Developing Countries Using a Novel Tool Based on Multi-Criteria Analysis. Sustainability, 11(19), 5363. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11195363
Keywords: Sustainability assessment, rural water supply systems, developing countries, multi-criteria analysis, analytical hierarchy process.
Abstract: Rural water supply systems (RWSS) in developing countries typically have deficiencies that threaten their sustainability. This research used Multi-Criteria Analysis and the Analytical Hierarchy Process to identify indicators that can be used to assess the sustainability of RWSS. The assessment tool developed is composed of 17 attributes with 95 quantifiable indicators. The tool enables the assessment of the sustainability of RWSS, using data collected through semi-structured interviews, social cartography, technical inspection, household surveys, and water monitoring. The tool was applied in a case study of a RWSS in the Andean region of Colombia, illustrating a participatory, holistic, and structured assessment that provided a single sustainability measure for the system (3.0/5.0). The tool’s completeness is represented by its extensive attributes and indicators that deliver a robust baseline on the state of a system, help identify improvement strategies, and monitor system performance over time that can assists rural community organizations with RWSS management.
GC, R. K., Ranganathan, S., & Hall, R. P. (2019). Does Rural Water System Design Matter? A Study of Productive Use of Water in Rural Nepal. Water, 11(10), 1978. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11101978
Keywords: Rural water systems, multiple-use water systems (MUS), single-use domestic water systems (SUS), productive activities, multinomial logistic regression, rural water system design.
Abstract: In Nepal, rural water systems (RWS) are classified by practitioners as single-use domestic water systems (SUS) or multiple-use water systems (MUS). In the rural hills of Nepal, subsistence farming communities typically use RWS to support income-generating productive activities that can enhance rural livelihoods. However, there is limited research on the extent of existing productive activity and the factors enabling these activities. This paper examines the extent of water-related productive activities and the factors driving these activities based on a study, undertaken between October 2017 to June 2018, of 202 households served from five single-use domestic water systems and five multiple use water systems in the mid-hills of Nepal. The research found that a majority (94%) of these households engaged in two or more productive activities including growing vegetables and horticulture crops, raising livestock, and producing biogas and Rakshi (locally-produced alcohol), regardless of the system design, i.e., SUS vs. MUS. Around 90% of the households were engaged in productive activities that contributed to over 10% of their mean annual household income ($4,375). Since the SUS vs. MUS classification was not found to be a significant determinant of the extent of productive activity, the households were reclassified as having high or low levels of productive activity based on the quantity of water used for these activities and the associated earned income. A multinomial logistic regression model was developed to measure the relative significance of various predictors of high productive activity households. Five dominant predictors were identified: households that farm as a primary occupation, use productive technologies, are motivated to pursue productive activities, have received water-related productive activity training, and have received external support related to productive activities. Whereas MUS are designed for productive activity, nearly every household in SUS communities was involved in productive activities making them ‘de-facto’ MUS. These results challenge the current approach to rural water provision that views SUS and MUS as functionally different services.
Stedman, S., Mnyimbiri, A. M., Kawonga, Z., Malota, M., Njera, D., Hall, R. P., & Holm, R. H. (2018). Using irrigation to kick-start multiple-use water services for small-scale farmers in Malawi: A case study of the Nkhata Bay District: Kick-start multiple-use water services Malawi. Irrigation and Drainage, 67(5), 645–653. https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.2282
Keywords: Fresh water, gravity-fed irrigation, low-income countries, Malawi, rural, water research.
Abstract: Irrigation schemes are an important part of meeting the national agenda in Malawi, yet the design and management of these schemes have not taken advantage of emerging approaches that could improve their performance. One such idea is the concept of multiple-use water services (MUS). This case study focuses on rural irrigation systems in the Nkhata Bay District, evaluating system usage, profiles of the irrigators, and barriers to irrigation to identify opportunities to kick-start MUS using existing organizational structures. Interviews were conducted with 141 respondents from 5 functioning irrigation sections. The study found that there are already systems in place for cooperation, with both the government and communities each contributing to long-term sustainability. Basic MUS could advance the water–energy–food–health nexus and build more resilient communities. The following recommendations would enable communities and development partners to advance irrigation-based MUS in Malawi: (i) target long-established, committed, farmer groups; (ii) provide reliable and sustainable local technologies to lift water; (iii) improve access to markets and inputs to support higher-value cash crops being grown on irrigated land; (iv) create an overlap between community-level irrigation and borehole committees, private sectors, local government ministries and development partners.
Hall, R., Ranganathan, S., & G. C., R. (2017). A General Micro-Level Modeling Approach to Analyzing Interconnected SDGs: Achieving SDG 6 and More through Multiple-Use Water Services (MUS). Sustainability, 9(2), 314. https://doi.org/10.3390/su9020314
Keywords: Sustainable development goals, water, multiple-use water services; rural, peri-urban, cost–benefit analysis, multilevel modeling framework.
Abstract: The 2030 agenda presents an integrated set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and targets that will shape development activities for the coming decade. The challenge now facing development organizations and governments is how to operationalize this interconnected set of goals and targets through effective projects and programs. This paper presents a micro-level modeling approach that can quantitatively assess the impacts associated with rural water interventions that are tailored to specific communities. The analysis focuses on how a multiple-use water services (MUS) approach to SDG 6 could reinforce a wide range of other SDGs and targets. The multilevel modeling framework provides a generalizable template that can be used in multiple sectors. In this paper, we apply the methodology to a dataset on rural water services from Mozambique to show that community-specific equivalents of macro-level variables used in the literature such as Cost of Illness (COI) avoided can provide a better indication of the impacts of a specific intervention. The proposed modeling framework presents a new frontier for designing projects in any sector that address the specific needs of communities, while also leveraging the knowledge gained from previous projects in any country. The approach also presents a way for agencies and organizations to design projects or programs that bridge sectors/disciplines (water, irrigation, health, energy, economic development, etc.) to advance an interconnected set of SDGs and targets.
Chirwa, C., Hall, R., Krometis, L.-A., Vance, E., Edwards, A., Guan, T., & Holm, R. (2017). Pit Latrine Fecal Sludge Resistance Using a Dynamic Cone Penetrometer in Low Income Areas in Mzuzu City, Malawi. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(2), 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14020087
Keywords: Developing countries, fecal sludge management, peri-urban, sanitation.
Abstract: Pit latrines can provide improved household sanitation, but without effective and inexpensive emptying options, they are often abandoned once full and may pose a public health threat. Emptying techniques can be difficult, as the sludge contents of each pit latrine are different. The design of effective emptying techniques (e.g., pumps) is limited by a lack of data characterizing typical in situ latrine sludge resistance. This investigation aimed to better understand the community education and technical engineering needs necessary to improve pit latrine management. In low income areas within Mzuzu city, Malawi, 300 pit latrines from three distinct areas were assessed using a dynamic cone penetrometer to quantify fecal sludge strength, and household members were surveyed to determine their knowledge of desludging procedures and practices likely to impact fecal sludge characteristics. The results demonstrate that there is a significant difference in sludge strength between lined and unlined pits within a defined area, though sludge hardened with depth, regardless of the pit type or region. There was only limited association between cone penetration depth and household survey data. To promote the adoption of pit emptying, it is recommended that households be provided with information that supports pit emptying, such as latrine construction designs, local pit emptying options, and cost. This study indicates that the use of a penetrometer test in the field prior to pit latrine emptying may facilitate the selection of appropriate pit emptying technology.
Van Houweling, E., Hall, R., Carzolio, M., & Vance, E. (2017). ‘My Neighbour Drinks Clean Water, While I Continue To Suffer’: An Analysis of the Intra-Community Impacts of a Rural Water Supply Project in Mozambique. The Journal of Development Studies, 53(8), 1147–1162. https://doi.org/10.1080/00220388.2016.1224852
Keywords: Rural water supply, intra-community impacts, Mozambique, handpumps, household decision-making.
Abstract: Rural water planners assume the positive impacts of community water projects are spread evenly across the population. We test this assumption by looking at the distribution of benefits within communities that received handpumps in rural Mozambique. Using survey and qualitative data we analyse the characteristics of those groups who benefited from the handpumps and also explore household decision-making processes. Handpump use was determined by distance, availability of other sources, perceptions of water quality, political affiliation, and wealth. We argue that the handpumps reinforced existing social divisions related to income and political affiliation and created new geographic divisions within communities.
Hall, R. P., Vance, E. A., Van Houweling, E., & Huang, W. (2015). Willingness to pay for VIP latrines in rural Senegal. Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development, 5(4), 586–593. https://doi.org/10.2166/washdev.2015.053
Keywords: Rural Senegal, sanitation, ventilated improved pit, VIP latrine, willingness to pay.
Abstract: In 2015, African ministers established the Ngor Declaration to achieve universal access to adequate sanitation and hygiene services and eliminate open defecation by 2030. Realizing this target will require significant public and private investment. Over the last two decades, there has been increasing recognition that sanitation programs should be demand driven, yet limited information exists about how much rural residents in developing countries are willing to pay for sanitation improvements. This paper applies the contingent valuation approach to evaluate how much households in rural Senegal are willing to pay for a ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine. The analysis uses data from 1,635 household surveys that were conducted in 47 rural communities across four regions in Senegal. The willingness to pay model found that respondents were more willing to pay for a VIP latrine if they had plans to improve their existing latrine, lived in districts located nearer to the capital city of Dakar, were dissatisfied with their existing sanitation service, and were male. The analysis also indicates that the current household contribution of 5% of the costs of constructing a VIP latrine could be increased to 30% with only a modest decline in the number of households willing to pay this amount.
Hall, R. P., Vance, E. A., & van Houweling, E. (2015). Upgrading Domestic-Plus Systems in Rural Senegal: An Incremental Income-Cost (I-C) Analysis. Water Alternatives, 8(3), 317–336.
Keywords: Domestic-plus systems, intermediate-level MUS, multiple-use water services, rural water supply, incremental I-C analysis, Senegal.
Abstract: There is growing evidence that rural and peri-urban households depend on water not only for basic domestic needs but also for a wide variety of livelihood activities. In recognition of this reality, an alternative approach to water service planning, known as multiple-use water services (MUS), has emerged to design water services around householdsʼ multiple water needs. The benefits of MUS are diverse and include improved health, food security, income generation, and women’s empowerment. A common argument put forth by WASH sector professionals in favour of upgrading existing water systems is that productive water uses allow for income generation that, in turn, enhances the ability to pay for services. However, there has been limited rigorous research to assess whether the additional income generated from productive use activities justifies water service upgrading costs. This paper describes an income-cost (I-C) analysis based on survey data and EPANET models for 47 domestic-plus water systems in rural Senegal to assess whether the theoretical financial benefits to households from additional piped-water-based productive activities would be greater than the estimated system upgrade costs. The paper provides a transparent methodology for performing an I-C analysis. We find that the potential incremental income earned by upgrading the existing domestic-plus systems to provide intermediate-level MUS would be equivalent to the funds needed to recover the system upgrade costs in just over one year. Thus, hypothetically, water could pay for water. A sensitivity analysis shows that even with a 55% reduction in household income earned per cubic meter of water, the incremental income is still greater than the upgrade costs over a ten-year period for the majority of the systems.
Hall, R. P., Vance, E. A., & van Houweling, E. (2014). The Productive Use of Rural Piped Water in Senegal. Water Alternatives, 7(3), 480–498.
Keywords: Multiple-use water services, domestic plus, technical performance, water committee capacity, rural piped water, Senegal.
Abstract: Over the past decade there has been a growing interest in the potential benefits related to the productive use of rural piped water around the homestead. However, there is limited empirical research on the extent to which, and conditions under which, this activity occurs. Using data obtained from a comprehensive study of 47 rural piped water systems in Senegal, this paper reveals the extent of piped-water-based productive activity occurring and identifies important system-level variables associated with this activity. Three-quarters (74%) of the households surveyed depend on water for their livelihoods with around one-half (54%) relying on piped water. High levels of piped-water-based productive activity were found to be associated with shorter distances from a community to a city or paved road (i.e. markets), more capable water system operators and water committees, and communities that contributed to the construction of the piped water system. Further, access to electricity was associated with higher productive incomes from water-based productive activities, highlighting the role that non-water-related inputs have on the extent of productive activities undertaken. Finally, an analysis of the technical performance of piped water systems found no statistically significant association between high vs. low levels of productive activity and system performance; however, a positive relationship was found between system performance and the percentage of households engaged in productive activities.
Hall, R. P., Van Koppen, B., & Van Houweling, E. (2014). The Human Right to Water: The Importance of Domestic and Productive Water Rights. Science and Engineering Ethics, 20(4), 849–868. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11948-013-9499-3
Keywords: Human right to water, multiple-use water services, domestic-plus, livelihoods, gender.
Abstract: The United Nations (UN) Universal Declaration of Human Rights engenders important state commitments to respect, fulfill, and protect a broad range of socio-economic rights. In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. However, water plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but have not yet been operationalized. This paper unravels these broader water-related rights in a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law. By focusing on an emerging approach to water services provision—known as ‘domestic-plus’ services—the paper argues how this approach operationalizes a comprehensive range of socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas. Domestic-plus services provide water for domestic and productive uses around homesteads, which challenges the widespread practice in the public sector of planning and designing water infrastructure for a single-use. Evidence is presented to show that people in rural communities are already using their water supplies planned for domestic uses to support a wide range of productive activities. Domestic-plus services recognize and plan for these multiple-uses, while respecting the priority for clean and safe drinking water. The paper concludes that domestic-plus services operationalize the obligation to progressively fulfill a comprehensive range of indivisible socio-economic rights in rural and peri-urban areas.
van Houweling, E., Hall, R. P., Diop, A. S., Davis, J., & Seiss, M. (2012). The Role of Productive Water Use in Women’s Livelihoods: Evidence from Rural Senegal. Water Alternatives, 5(3), 658–677.
Keywords: Water supply, women, multiple-use water services, domestic plus, Senegal.
Abstract: Enhancing livelihoods and promoting gender equity are primary goals of rural development programmes in Africa. This article explores the role of productive water use in relation to these goals based on 1860 household surveys and 15 women’s focus groups conducted in four regions of Senegal with small-scale piped water systems. The piped systems can be considered ‘domestic plus’ systems because they were designed primarily for domestic use, and also to accommodate small-scale productive uses including livestock-raising and community-gardening. This research focuses on the significance of productive water use in the livelihood diversification strategies of rural women. In Senegal, we find that access to water for productive purposes is a critical asset for expanding and diversifying rural livelihoods. The time savings associated with small piped systems and the increased water available allowed women to enhance existing activities and initiate new enterprises. Women’s livelihoods were found to depend on productive use activities, namely livestock-raising and gardening, and it is estimated that one half of women’s incomes is linked to productive water use. While these findings are largely positive, we find that water service and affordability constraints limit the potential benefits of productive water use for women and the poorest groups. Implications for targeting women and the poorest groups within the domestic plus approach are discussed.
Burton, M. A., & Hall, R. P. (1999). Asset Management for Irrigation Systems – Addressing the Issue of Serviceability. Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 13(2), 145–163. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006295501430
Keywords: Asset management, serviceability, irrigation, level of service, Irrigation Serviceability Matrix.
Abstract: This paper advocates the need for defining criteria for level of service provision for irrigation networks and outlines a proposed Irrigation Serviceability Matrix to be used in the preparation of asset management plans and investment strategies for irrigation infrastructure. The development of the Irrigation Serviceability Matrix is based on experienced gained in the UK by the privatised water industry where the level of service provision to customers has become a key determinant for investment in infrastructure. The paper describes the evolution of this process within the UK water industry and its application to the irrigation sector.
Hall, R. P. van Koppen, B., van Houweling, E., &, Mathew, L. (2015) Policy Brief: The Human Right to Domestic and Productive Water. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA.
In 2010, a milestone was reached when the UN General Assembly recognized the human right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation. Yet, water also plays an important role in realizing other human rights such as the right to food and livelihoods, and in realizing the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. These broader water-related rights have been recognized but not operationalized. This policy brief argues for a more holistic interpretation of existing international human rights law that supports a broader range of water-related rights. In addition, it raises the question of whether the current formulation of the human right to safe and clean drinking water, could limit development opportunities for people in rural and peri-urban communities who also use water for productive activities around the homestead.
van Houweling, E., Botta, R., Hall, R. P., Holm, R., Tembo, M., & Jenkins, M. (2018). Marion Medical Mission: Well Program—Well Program Evaluation. Marion Medical Mission.
Marion Medical Mission (MMM) began installing wells in Malawi in 1990, and the program has grown immensely since this time, including wells in Zambia and Tanzania. This report presents the results from an impact evaluation conducted in July 2017 of the MMM shallow well building program in Malawi.
Hall, R. P., van Houweling, E., Polys, N., Wenzel, S., & Williams, P. (2015). Interdisciplinary Exploratory Research: Visualizing Water Services for Decision Making. Field Report. Institute for Society, Culture, and Environment, Virginia Tech, VA.
Decision making about water resource management and development in rural Africa is often made at high levels, distant from those affected and without reliable data or consideration of future trends and scenarios. The advancement of a water service model conceived at a regional, national, or international level may result in a project that fails to adequately consider community needs and priorities. Poor people and other disadvantaged groups have few opportunities to participate in decision making about water, although they suffer the most from poor water access. Without an understanding of the social dynamics and different interests and needs for water across a community, water development projects may increase conflicts, marginalize the most vulnerable groups, fail to reduce poverty, and fall into disrepair.
Given this context, there is a pressing need for more inclusive and participatory approaches for making decisions about local water resources. Participatory mapping is one approach for understanding local water needs, decision-making processes, and the interests of different community groups (i.e., men and women, herders and farmers, etc.), but by itself it is an insufficient tool for decision making since it is not grounded in the science of hydrology.
Providing water to sustainably and equitably meet multiple water demands requires a platform capable of integrating scientific data and community-based knowledge and interests into a modeling framework that allows local-level actors to participate in, and take ownership of, the planning of their water resources.
The primary research questions addressed are:
- How can visualization technologies integrate biophysical maps, water balance assessment through monitoring and modeling, and participatory mapping to create a decision-making platform that is accessible to local level stakeholders?
- How can decisions about the development and management of water resources be made closer to the local level, in a way that takes advantage of scientific approaches, empowers communities with knowledge, and includes the needs of all groups?
Hall, R. P., Davis, J., van Houweling, E., Vance, E. A., Carzolio, M., Seiss, M., & Russel, K. (2014). Impact Evaluation of the Mozambique Rural Water Supply Activity Under a Cooperative Agreement between MCC and Stanford University. April 15, 2014, 120 pages. Report submitted to the Millennium Challenge Corporation. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA.
In 2007, the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) signed a $506.9 million compact designed to reduce poverty in Mozambique by promoting sustainable economic growth. Among the planned investments was the installation of 600 improved water points in rural communities across the provinces of Nampula and Cabo Delgado. In addition to the installation of the water points, the Rural Water Points Installation Program (RWPIP) also mobilized water committees to maintain the infrastructure and provided trainings to water committees and community members. Most of the water points are boreholes equipped with Afridev handpumps, but in Cabo Delgado ten small-scale solar systems (SSSS) were installed where there was sufficient water supply and unmet demand. The Rural Water Supply Activity (RWSA) of the Mozambique Compact is intended to increase sustainable access to improved water supply in some of the country’s poorest districts. This report provides the results from an impact evaluation of the Millennium Challenge Account’s (MCA’s) Rural Water Point Implementation Program (RWPIP) in Nampula.
Hall, R. P., Van Houweling, E., Vance, E. A., Carzolio, M., & Davis, J. (2014). Evaluation of Eight Small-Scale Solar Systems in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique. Report submitted to the Millennium Challenge Corporation. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA.
In 2007, the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) signed a $506.9 million compact designed to reduce poverty in Mozambique by promoting sustainable economic growth. Among the planned investments was the installation of 600 improved water points in rural communities across the provinces of Nampula and Cabo Delgado. In addition to the installation of the water points, the Rural Water Points Installation Program (RWPIP) also mobilized water committees to maintain the infrastructure and provided trainings to water committees and community members. Most of the water points are boreholes equipped with Afridev handpumps, but in Cabo Delgado ten small-scale solar systems (‘SSSS’) were installed where there was sufficient water supply and unmet demand. The Rural Water Supply Activity (‘RWSA’) of the Mozambique Compact is intended to increase sustainable access to improved water supply in some of the country’s poorest districts.
This report provides the results an evaluation of the eight SSSS that were installed in Cabo Delgado at the time of the study.
Hall, R. P., Davis, J., Vance, E. A., van Houweling, E., Carzolio, M., & Russel, K. (2013). Impact Evaluation Design and Implementation Report. Impact Evaluation of the Rural Water Activity in Nampula, Mozambique. Submitted to the Millennium Challenge Corporation. Stanford University, Stanford, CA, and Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA.
This report provides a summary of the process by which the rural water program impact evaluation sample frame was developed.
Elements of this report can be read in Section 6 and Appendix A of the Impact Evaluation of the Mozambique Rural Water Supply Activity report.
Davis, J., Hall, R. P., Hope, R., Marks, S., & van Houweling, E. (2011). Assessing the Link between Productive use of Domestic Water, Poverty Reduction, and Sustainability. Synthesis Report. Submitted to the Water and Sanitation Program, World Bank. Stanford University, Stanford, CA, and Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA.
Given the emergence of the multiple-use water services paradigm, there is a need for rigorous and policy-relevant research that can provide objective advice on the potential benefits of “multiple-use” or “domestic plus” water services. This report provides the results from the fieldwork undertaken in Colombia, Kenya, and Senegal during 2008-2010 as part of the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) research project entitled “Assessing the Link between Productive Use of Domestic Water, Poverty Reduction, and Sustainability.” The purpose of the project was to explore the extent to which, and conditions under which, re-orienting rural water planning to better match the full range of users’ demands – including “productive uses” of domestic water – can reduce poverty, enhance the financial sustainability of water services, and advance important social goals such as gender equality.
The main research questions pursued in the study were:
- What types of productive uses of domestic piped water do households in the three study countries undertake? Under what conditions are such activities more likely to occur?
- Who benefits when rural water systems are used for productive purposes? To what extent are benefits generated by productive use captured by lower-income households and by women?
- What evidence exists regarding the financial sustainability of systems used for productive purposes as compared to those used for basic needs (drinking, cooking, washing, and bathing) only?
- What are the incremental costs and expected benefits—in terms of income generation—of upgrading existing rural water supply systems to ones that can supply sufficient water for productive uses in the three study countries?
Hall, R. P., van Houweling, E., Vance, E. A., Hope, R., & Davis, J. (2011). Assessing the Link between Productive use of Domestic Water, Poverty Reduction, and Sustainability. Senegal Country Report . Submitted to the Water and Sanitation Program, World Bank. Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA.
This report provides the results from the fieldwork undertaken in Senegal from May to September, 2009, as part of the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) research project entitled “Assessing the Link between Productive Use of Domestic Water, Poverty Reduction, and Sustainability.” The purpose of the project was to explore the extent to which, and conditions under which, the productive use of domestic water can reduce poverty, enhance the financial sustainability of water services, and advance important social goals such as gender equality. Productive activities are considered to be any activity that relies on water. Productive activities include gardening, agriculture, the raising of livestock, commerce, services, and manufacturing (such as the making of bricks or soap).
The main research questions to be answered through this research are as follows:
- What is the extent to which, and conditions under which, productive activity occurs in rural communities in Senegal?
- What are the incremental costs and benefits of the productive use of water associated with piped rural water supply systems in Senegal?
- What evidence exists regarding the financial and technical sustainability of systems used for productive purposes as compared to those used for basic needs (drinking, cooking, washing, and bathing) only?
- Who benefits when rural water systems are used for productive purposes? Specifically, what share of the benefits generated by productive use is captured by women and lower-income households?